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Home | Karnataka | Bangalore

BANGALORE

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Bangalore, officially Bengaluru, is the capital of Karnataka. Bangalore is India's third most populous city and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration.

Though historical references to the city predate 900 CE, a modern written history of continuous settlement exists only from 1537, when Kempe Gowda I, who many regard as the architect of modern Bangalore, built a mud fort in the city and established it as a province of the imperial Vijayanagara Empire. During the British Raj, it became a centre of colonial rule in South India. The establishment of the Bangalore Cantonment brought in large numbers of migrants from other parts of the country.

Today, as a large and growing metropolis, Bangalore is home to some of the most well-recognized colleges and research institutions in India. Numerous public sector heavy industries, software companies, aerospace, telecommunications, and defense organisations are located in the city. Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of India because of its pre-eminent position as the nation's leading IT employer and exporter. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore has developed into one of India's major economic hubs and is the fastest growing major metropolis in India.

A well-planned city,with tree-lined avenues,a large number of parks, gardens and lakes,Bangalore is aptly called India's garden city. Bangalore is even gaining the status of the "Floriculture Capital of India" due to the present blossoming of flower exports from the city. The beautiful parks like the Lalbagh and Cubbon Park are indeed a treat to the eyes.

The name Bangalore is an anglicised version of the city's name in the Kannada language, Bengaluru. The earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru" was found in a ninth century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vira kallu"(literally, "hero stone", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengaluru" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890. It states that the place was part of the Ganga kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Old Kannada.

An inscription, dating back to 890 CE, shows Bengaluru is over 1,000 years old. But it stands neglected at the Parvathi Nageshwara Temple in Begur near the city...written in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada) of the 9th century CE, the epigraph refers to a Bengaluru war in 890 in which Buttanachetty, a servant of Nagatta, died. Though this has been recorded by historian R. Narasimhachar in his Epigraphia of Carnatica (Vol. 10 supplementary), no efforts have been made to preserve it.

An apocryphal, though popular, anecdote recounts that the 11th-century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda kaal-uru"(literally, "town of boiled beans"), which was eventually simplified to "Bengaluru".

On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengaluru, which is its name in Kannada. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhath Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change, which was accepted by the Government of Karnataka and it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006. However, this process has been currently stalled due to delays in getting clearances from the Union Home Ministry.

After centuries of the rule of the Western Gangas, Bengaluru was captured by the Cholas in 1024 which later passed on to the Chalukya-cholas in 1070. In 1116 the Hoysala Empire, overthrew the Cholas and extended its rule over Bangalore. Modern Bangalore was founded by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who built a mud fort and a Nandi Temple in the proximity of modern Bangalore in 1537. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandu bhumi" or "Land of Heroes".

Within the fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions called "petes". The town had two main streets: Chikkapete Street, which ran east-west, and Doddapete Street, which ran north-south. Their intersection formed the Doddapete Square - the heart of Bangalore. Kempe Gowda's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four famous towers that marked Bangalore's boundary. During the Vijayanagara rule, Bangalore was also referred to as "Devarayanagara" and "Kalyanapura" ("Auspicious City"). After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. In 1638, a large Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by Shahji Bhonsle defeated Kempe Gowda III and Bangalore was given to Shahji as a jagir. In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan defeated Ekoji, son of Shahji, and then sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673-1704) of Mysore for 300,000 rupees. After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of Mysore. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tippu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore. Bangalore was eventually incorporated into the British Indian Empire after Tippu Sultan was defeated and killed in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799). The British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pete" to the Maharaja of Mysore, choosing only to retain the Cantonment under their jurisdiction. The 'Residency' of Mysore State was first established at Mysore in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in the year 1804. It was abolished in the year 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian independence. The British, found it easier to recruit employees in the Madras Presidency and relocate them to cantonment area during this period. The Kingdom of Mysore relocated its capital from Mysore city to Bangalore in 1831.[Two important developments during this period contributed to the rapid growth of the city: the introduction of telegraph connections and a rail connection to Madras in 1864.

In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the "pete", whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas, and the "cantonment" created by the British, whose residents were predominantly Tamils. Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that dramatically reduced its population. New extensions in Malleshwara and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the pete. Telephone lines were laid to help co-ordinate anti-plague operations, and a health officer was appointed to the city in 1898. In 1906, Bangalore became the first city in India to have electricity, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra. Bangalore's reputation as the Garden City of India began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to beautify the city. After Indian independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the new Mysore State of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh. Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941-51 and 1971-81 , which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka. By 1961, Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000. In the decades that followed, Bangalore's manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as Motor Industries Company (MICO; a subsidiary of Robert Bosch GmbH), which set up its manufacturing plant in the city. Bangalore experienced a boom in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalows to multi-storied apartments. In 1985, Texas Instruments became the first multinational to set up base in Bangalore. Other Information Technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had firmly established itself as the Silicon Valley of India.

HOW TO REACH BANGALORE
Bangalore is 135 kms from Mysore, 369 kms from Trichy, 303 kms from Pondichery, 1997 kms from Patna, 570 kms from Goa, 432 kms from Madurai, 335 kms from Chennai, 566 kms from hyderabad, 545 kms from Cochin.

By Air: Bangalore is well connected with almost all the cities in India. Indian Airlines and Jet Airways have daily services to the major cities and Sahara Airlines operates to Mumbai. Indian Airlines and Air India operate to few international cities. Rayal Nepal operates 2 flights in a week to Kathmandu, and Malaysian Airlines operates to Malaysia.

By Rail: Bangalore is well connected by excellent train services to most of the cities in Inida. The main railway station is the Bangalore city railway station. The other railway stations are Whitefield, Cantonment, Krishnarajapuram, Yeshwanthpur and Bangalore East railway station.

By Road: K.S.R.T.C, the State run Transport Corporation has daily services to various towns in Karnataka and as well to other nearing states. Bus services are also run by several other state road transport cormporations and private bus operators. B.M.T.C, the Bangalore City Transport Corporation has bus services to many places within the city. Apart from the local city buses, one can choose to travel by Auto Rikshwa or by City Taxi.

Bangalore city is famous for it's numerous Yoga centers, where fitness freaks can learn and practice this ancient art of keeping healthy.

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