Belgaum is a city and a municipal corporation in Belgaum district in Karnataka. Belgaum is situated nearly 2500 ft above sea-level and is the headquarters of Belgaum district, which borders the states of Maharashtra and Goa. Belgaum Pin Code is 590001.
The city of Belgaum was built in the 12th century AD by the Ratta dynasty who were based at nearby Saundatti. The fort of Belgaum was built in 1204 by a Ratta officer named Bichiraja. Belgaum served as the capital of that dynasty between 1210 and 1250, before the Rattas were defeated by the Yadava Dynasty of Devagiri. Belgaum then briefly came under the sway of the Yadavas of Devagiri. The Khiljis of Delhi invaded the region at the turn of the 1300s and succeeded in ruining both the indigenous powers of the region, the Yadava and the Hoysalas without providing a viable administration. This lacuna was supplied by the Vijayanagara Empire, which had become the established power of the area by 1336. A century later, the town had become a bustling trading hub for diamonds and wood, owing to its favourable geographic location in the kingdom.
In 1474, the Bahmani Sultanate, then ruling from Bidar, captured the fort of Belgaum. Shortly afterwards, in 1518, the Bahamani sultanate splintered into five small states, and Belgaum became part of the Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur. The Adilshahis reinforced the fort of Belgaum; much of the existing structure dates from 1519. In 1686, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb overthrew the Bijapur sultanate, and Belgaum passed nominally to the Mughals. However, the Mughal empire went into decline after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, and his principal detractors, the Maratha confederacy, took control of the area during the rule of the Peshwas. In 1776, the country was overrun by Hyder Ali of Mysore, but was retaken by the Peshwa with British assistance. In 1818, the British deposed the last Peshwa and annexed his kingdom, which included Belgaum.
Belgaum was chosen as the venue of the 39th session of Indian National Congress in December 1924 under the President ship of Mahatma Gandhiji. The city served as a major military installation for the British Raj, primarily due to its proximity to Goa, which was then a Portuguese territory. Once the British left India, the Indian Government continued and still continues to have Armed forces installations in Belgaum. In 1961, the Indian government, under the Prime Ministership of Nehru used forces from Belgaum to end Portuguese rule of Goa.
When India became independent in 1947, Belgaum and its district became part of Bombay State. In 1956, the Indian states were reorganised along linguistic lines by the States Reorganisation Act, and Belgaum District was transferred to Mysore State, which was renamed Karnataka in 1972.
In 2006, the Government of Karnataka announced that Belgaum would be made the state's second capital and that the city would be a permanent venue for the annual 15-day session of the state legislature.
Belgaum is anglicized name of Belgaon/Belagaavi. The names are possibly from the Sanskrit Venugrama, "Bamboo village".
The name Belgaum had been proposed to be changed to Belagaavi by the Karnataka government. However in August 2007, the Central Government refused permission to rename Belgaum while giving a go-ahead to rename 11 other cities in Karnataka
Tourist Attractions in Belgaum
Belgaum is located 502 km from Bangalore and 154 km from Goa. Nestled in the foothills of the Western Ghats, it enjoys a cool, salubrious climate and is surrounded by natural beauty in the form of rivers, hills and dense evergreen forests. Inside the city, A wide variety of historical sites, temples and churches exist in and around the city, most notably the fort Kamala Basti, Kapileshwar temple (South Kashi), the hills of Vaijyanath, Ramtirth in Kanbargi, the aerodrome at Sambra and others.
Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama: Ramakrishna mission ashrama is a branch of the ramakrishna math belur. Inspired by the thoughts of the trio i.e Swami vivekananda, Ramakrishna paramahansa and Mother sharda devi, It provides free service to poor and also helps people realise their spiritual goals.Ramakrishna mission ashrama belgaum was established under the able guidance of Swami Purushottamanandaji Maharaj and is presently under the guidance of Swami Raghaveshanandaji Maharaj.
Jamboti: Jamboti, 20 km south-west of Belgaum, is a popular tourist spot with its evergreen hilltop forests.
Vajrapoha Falls: Vajrapoha Falls on the Mandovi river are located 26 km from Belgaum.
Godchanmalki Falls: Godchanmalki falls is a popular destination at a distance of about 60 km from Belgaum. They are stepwise falls which are approximately 100 metres in length, with a step at every 30 metres.
Gokak Falls: Gokak Falls is yet another resplendant waterfall 62km from Belgaum and 6km from the Gokak town.
Amboli Falls: Amboli falls This little known coastal highland area is fabulous during the monsoons. Thick forests, curving misty ghats and shades of vibrant greens.
State Protected Monuments in Belgaum
State Protected Monuments officially reported by Archeological Survey of India in Belgaum, Karnataka is listed below
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|State Protected Monuments in Belgaum|
- Tomb of Pir Kazi
- Belgaum Fort
- Lakshmi Temple, Math of Adavyappasvami
- Small plain temple of Ramalingadev
- Siddesvara Mud Fort; Temple of Amritesvar Mahadev; Belgaum Mosque
- Old Jain temple
- Basavesvar Temple
- Remains of fort called Machigadh or Hanumantgadh
- Temple of Ravalnath with Persian Inscription
- Ramesvara Temple
- Mahalingesvar temple, Basava temple, Ruins of 4 other temples
- Ruined temple of Isvaradev with inscription
- Temples of Brahmanth and Satvai Belgaum
- Temples of Haridev and Mallikarjuna; old shrine of Daridevi Belgaum
- Ghanti Basavanna
- Yellamma temple
- Mahipalgadh Fort
- Temples of Kunkumbesvar and Mahakidevi
- Martand temple
- Nippani Fort
- Vaishnav temple of Govindaraj
- Parasgadh Fort
- Pargadh Fort
- Parthesvar temple in black stone
- Anandparvat Hill; old Ramesvar temple Belgaum
- Spring and temple of goddess Rsubai Belgaum
- Shankarling temple
- Kasiling temple of Black stone
- Shamshergadh Fort
- Kalammadevi temple
- Old temple and Monumental stones
- Narasimh temple
- Somesvar temple
- Shankarling temple
- Bharamappa temple
- Old temples of Muktesvar, Mallikarjun, Renuka, Yallamma Belgaum
- Vallabhgadh Fort
- Yamakanmardi Fort
- Veerabhadra temple with Inscriptions
- Shrine of goddess Yellamma
- Rani Channamma Palace and fort
- Tomb of Sangolli Rayanna
- Hatakesvar temple
Kunda is produced in large quantities everyday in Belgaum. Belgaum kunda, a sweet prepared from milk and khowa, is a clear favorite and is produced by several local sweet merchants besides the Purohits. Gajanan Mithaiwala in Vitthal Dev Galli, Shahpur set up his sweet shop six decades ago in Belgaum. Referred to as Jakku Marwadi Mithaiwala, he came from Rajasthan and set up a sweet shop at Shahpur area. There are many kunda manufacturers in and around Belagavi.
Temples in Belgaum
Bhoo Varaha Laxmi Narasimha Temple is located in Halasi, one of the most ancient towns in Karnataka. Hooli Panchalingeshwar Temple is in the Belgaum district in North Karnataka. It is located at a distance nine kilometers from Saundatti, a major pilgrimage center with many temples. Jaina Temple in Halasi is an ancient town that lies 25 kilometers away from Kittur, in the Belgaum district of Karnataka. It is famous for its many temples - Jain, Shaivite and Vaishnavite. Kamal Basadi in Belgaum is one of the two Jain temples inside the Belgaum Fort. Kamala Narayana Temple is located in Degaon, 5 km from Kittoor in the district of Belgaum of North Karnataka. Saundatti Temples are located at a distance of 78 kilometers from Belgaum city, in Belgaum district of Karnataka. Yellamma Devi Temple is located in Saundatti taluq, five kilometers away from Saundatti town.
Halumatha Kuruba Purana
Halumatha is a denomination of the Hindu religion mainly followed by Kuruba Gowda. The majority of members of Halumatha are followers of Advaita and Nature Worship. Halumatha or Palamatha means beliefs of the protectors of the society. In Sanskrit Pal means protect, defend, rule, govern etc. Matha means group view, belief, doctrine etc. Worshiping originated from Halumatha. Stone is the source for the soil. Soil is the source for the plants. Plants are the source for the animals. This may be the reason for worshiping Almight in Stone. Through the ages, this stone worship tradition might have led to worshiping Shiva as Beeralingeswara, Mailara Linga, Malladevaru, Mahadeshwara, Nanjundeswara, Mallappa, Mallara, Mallikarjuna etc. Even the worshiping of shakti as Yellamma, Renuka, Chowdamma, Kariyamma, Chamundi, Bhanashankari, Gullamma etc. might have come from this tradition. Even today, ancestral worship as deities is very common. The worship of ancestors like Revanasidda, Rama, Hanuman, Krishna, Keshava, Ranganatha, Eerathimmanna, Tirupati Thimmappa, Venkateswara, Kalidasa, Siddarama, Kanakadasa etc. as Devaru very much exists in Kuruba Gowda traditions. Kurubas worship Shiva and Vishnu concept of the Almighty with the equal devotion.
Halumatha Kuruba Purana is an oral epic of the Kuruba Community in the districts of Belgaum, Gulbarga and Bellary. This oral epic has preserved for generations the collective experiences of the community and its cultural heroes, and its living traditions. This version was sung by an old reputed singer called Siddappa Meti and his associates, runs to 23,250 lines. During the performance of this epic, the singer sings to the rhythm of a small drum; and no other instrument is used. Both in rhythm and style, this is different from the other two epics described earlier. (Male Mahadeshwara and Manteswamy). Whereas the earlier ones use both stylised prose and verse, this narrative is completely in verse; and at the end of each unit, the singer's name is used. There are two heroes in this epic (Beerappa and Maalingaraya) and many inset-stories. Since many stories and incidents follow each other swiftly, there is not much room for descriptions. There are fourteen cantos (adhyaaya) and each canto consists of many sections (Sandu).