Nagapattinam (Nagapatnam or Negapatam) is a town in Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam District. The town came to prominence during the period of Medieval Cholas (9th - 12th century CE) and served as their important port for commerce and east bound naval expeditions. The Chudamani Vihara in Nagapattinam constructed by the Sri Lankan king with the help of Chola kingdom is an important Buddhist structure of the times. Nagapattinam was settled by the Portuguese and, later, the Dutch under whom it served as the capital of Dutch Coromandel from 1660 to 1781 CE. In November 1781, the town was conquered by the British East India Company. It served as the capital of Tanjore district from 1799 to 1845 CE under Madras Presidency of the British. It continued to be a part of Thanjavur district in Independent India. In 1991, it was made the headquarters of the newly created Nagapattinam District. Nagapattinam is administered by a Selection-grade municipality covering an area of 14.92 km2 (5.76 sq mi) and had a population of 102,905 as of 2011.
Majority of the people of Nagapattinam are employed in sea-borne trading, fishing, agriculture and tourism. The major pilgrimage site in Nagapattinam is Nagore Durgah, a 16th-century site. The major festival of Nagapattinam is the 14-day Kanduri festival celebrated in the Durgah, which is seen as a sacred exchange between Hindus and Muslims expressing solidarity of mixed faith in the region. Kayarohanaswami Temple and Soundararajaperumal Temple, Nagapattinam are the other major Hindu pilgrimage sites located in the town. Nagapattinam is the base for tourism for Sikkal, Velankanni, Poompuhar, Kodikkarai, Vedaranyam, Mannargudi and Tharangambadi. Roadways is the major mode of transport to Nagapattinam, while the city also has rail and sea transport. The town along with the district was severely damaged by the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004.
Kayarohanaswami Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Siva situated in the town of Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu, India. The presiding deity is known as Kayarohana and his consort is Nilayathakshi. The temple has been in existence from the 6th century AD and has been praised by the Nayanmars Appar, Sambandar and Sundarar. The temple has been constructed by the Lakolisa cult which originated in Gujarat and their only other temple in Tamil Nadu is at Kanchipuram. The idol of Thyagaraja in the temple is made of lapis lazuli.